Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Objectives of sustainable development

Objectives of sustainable development Introduction The UK construction industry has undergone an unprecedented change in construction technology. Modern Methods of Construction (MMC) have been invented and are increasingly being used. With regard to residential apartment blocks, up to the 1980s greater emphasis was being placed on economy of construction rather than sustainability and lifestyles. Since 1980s, factors such as (i) the speed of construction (ii) sustainability (ii) flexible use of space. The need for rapid construction has led to more use of off-site prefabrication to reduce time spent on site and increase cost-effectiveness. The advancement of construction technology has also benefited from Government policies particularly relating to sustainable development. Perhaps one of the most significant initiatives of the UK Government to encourage sustainable construction was the setting op of the â€Å"Construction Task Force† by the Deputy Prime Minister Mr John Prescott. The task force, which comprised Sir Michael Lathum and Sir John Egan, produced a report ‘Rethinking construction (Egan, 1998). This report became influential in making Government policy. Sir John Egan argued that the use of standardization, prefabrication and innovation would improve the sustainability of the construction industry in the UK. Egan also compared construction to a manufacturing process where improvements are always sustained. The report recommended the use of prefabrication and standardization in building work as a method of achieving value of money, better value for clients and other users. Such an approach is now favoured by most people in the building industry, especially in house building. The use of modern methods of construction allows homes to be built more quickly and efficiently. Modern methods also improve site safety and supplement skilled workmanship where there may be shortages. Nevertheless, modern methods of construction have some disadvantages compared to traditional methods in that construction costs are relatively higher and also some section the public may object to futuristic building designs that go against what they are used to. Developers using MMC may need to be accredited to certain regulating authorities (such as NHBC in the UK) to ensure high quality and durability of their materials. Prefabrication Review-History of MMC Prefabrication was used in UK during periods of high dement, as after the world wars and the slum clearances in 1960s. The technical success of many of these systems was shadowed by social failing of high-rise living. In the 20th century about a million prefabricated houses were build. Most technical problems which were experienced were related to materials and poor workmanship. Prefabricated systems have been used in many public building in UK and other European Countries. The UK parliamentary office of Science and Technology studies showed (MORI poll, 2001) negative attitudes pre-fabrication were result of a big published disaster problem in the 60s. In mid of 1990s interest of UK was significant based system (e.g. roof trusses, steel frames etc) but the complete system of housing development was little, using relatively unskilled labour has been the predominant of UK house building. Off-site Review Government reports suggest that modern methods of construction (MMC) could be part of the solution to improve the quality of housing (Baker 2003). The industry has been slow to develop innovative building technologies, according to Ball and Barrow (1999). Many studies of modern methods of construction have taken the approach of promoting off-site applications without considering all the issues (Roy et al. 2003). The off-site processes help reduce the project construction time. Bakers review 2003 In 2003 the UK Government appointed Sir Martin Baker to review and report on the economic and social impacts of home building. The review examined affordability of homes in the UK. The Government is encouraging modern methods of construction (MMC) and increased supply of homes. One of Bakers highlights (2003) is that it challenges the home building industry to change construction to satisfy housing needs. Planning new levels of housing stock been based on demographic trends (Baker 2004). Benefits of MMC involve the manufacture of homes in factories, which is the faster construction. Evidence-Audits report The Commission for Architecture and Build Environment (CABE) has been investigate for the scope for building more quickly using modern methods of construction (MMC). The objective criteria of the audits, they are open to criticism them also some in house building industry criticized which schemes are determined ‘good or ‘average. In 2005 the modern methods of cost might be higher, it was report and it was possible to: Reduce the construction of houses on-site To build home up to four times with the same amount of on-site labour The performance should be also good as for home build in traditional way. During the twentieth century The new building in the UK (1996) were smaller 13% than the existing stock compared to the European countries houses that were largest that order ones. The size of a new home it was roughly 15.m2, the smallest in the Western Europe and the other European countries tend to be 20 m2 and 30 m2. In the 1981-2001 a particular in new buildings is roughly 20% smaller than the typical pre-1919 home. A combination of social in 1950s, economical and political factors renewed to construct housing system (Boverker,2004). Modern Methods of construction-Embodied carbon The most serious threat to human society that has created itself is climate change. In the 1750s the global atmospheric concentrations of greenhouses gases, carbon dioxide (CO2). The building construction is a substantial contributor of global CO2. Global emissions attributable to energy use in buildings with quarter of total CO2. An important goal for the Government climate police is the reducing of energy and carbon emissions attributed to buildings. In housing construction standard embodied energy is equivalent to a few years of energy; there are some exceptions to low energy buildings. Embodied carbon is important for low energy buildings, because less energy is used in occupation, and additional energy required for the insulation level, energy consumed in the construction materials, transport and installation. However the embodied carbon of low energy house is to contribute a better proportion of lifecycle carbon emissions during the building lifetime than a convention house. Many of the benefits of Modern methods of construction for housing are contentious and unproven. The manufacture suggest of the Government of MMC are: Environment- houses can be more energy efficient, less transport of materials and produce less waste. Social- fewer accidents and less impact during construction. Economic- MMC can be build more quickly. Overview of MMC-Types Modern methods of construction its a term to saw a number of construction methods. In the UK, the methods that being introduced in the building industry significant from so-called construction methods such as brick and block. The MMC was debated in the industry and was no universally agreed definition. The housing corporation that is used for its own purposes in 2003 is a published construction classification system (table 1). Housing corporation construction 1. Off-site manufactured -Volumetric 2. Off-site manufactured -Panelized 3. Off-site manufactured-Hybrid 4. Off-site manufactured -Sub-assemblies and components 5. Non Off-site manufactured construction Other terms of describing the MMC, is the factory building assembled, industrialized construction, innovative systems constructed on-site and pre-fabrication construction. The sectors of the modern methods of construction have five categories used by the housing corporation: off-site manufactured volumetric, three dimensions units produced in the factory, fully fitted out before being transported in the site. The majority of off-site manufactured volumetric construction in the UK to date has been used in housing. Modules may be delivered to site in variety of forms; volumetric off-site brings all the critical activities to the structure to a factory based environment which ensures better quality control. Light steel frame off-site techniques are more used to the traditional construction methods and are used in all sectors of constructions industry. Light steel offers better quality control and reduction in waste. Off-site manufactured-panellised construction is flat panel units build in factory, fully fitted out before being transported to site, panellised systems such as walls, roofs, floors and it consists two types of panels, open panels when assembled forms a skeleton structure and are usually timber or frame and closed panels may include internal lining materials. Off-site manufactured-hybrid is the combination of panellised and volumetric systems, is used to create the skeleton of the structure and volumetric units are used for the bathrooms and the kitchens. The environmental impact of MMC products sector were assessed including timber frame, timber frame with straw bale. A hybrid construction is a panellised system and is good design for economy. There are many manufactured of panellished systems and volumetric. Precast concrete is a construction material where concrete is cast mold which is the cured in a controlled environment, transported to the construction site and lifted into pl ace. Barriers of MMC Some MMC homes builders are less expensive that the traditional methods of construction, increased cost about 7-10%. The reasons of different cost (higher) are difficult to discern because most of projects traditional masonry buildings cost widely. The cost apper high because in the MMC, there are different used of benefits such as better quality of construction, fewer accidents and reflect in project account MMC is the faster construction buildup to 50% and thus reducing labour costs. Capacity is a barrier of increasing the number of houses using MMC. In the two categories difficulties fall: factory capacity to manufacture parts and shortage of skills. Historical overview of sustainable development A great number of civilizations in human history it had been recognized the need of harmony between the society, the environment and the economy. More to the point, sustainable development is a very old idea that focuses, on improving the quality of life without exceeding the environmental supplies of natural resources. Unfortunately despite the predictions, the concept of sustainability gained momentum in 1980s when the problem became extremely obvious (Kenny, M., Meadowcroft, J., (1999). In 1973 was the first time that United Nations discussed about environmental solutions in Stockholm (Langton, C., A., Ding, G., K., C., (2001). Subsequently, the ideas discussed again in the World Conservation Strategy and new strategies were adopted by the governments of fifty countries but with very small practical impact. In 1983 the United Nations created the Worlds Commission in Environment and Development (WCED) and in 1987 they published a report in sustainable development with the name â€Å"Our common future† also known as the Brundtland Report (Langton, C., A., Ding, G., K., C., (2001). According to Langton, C., A., Ding, G., K., C., (2001) this report had critically signaled the rush of thinking for a second time the ways of governing and living as also the need of international coordination and cooperation. In 1992 in Rio Conference was the first time that the worlds leaders discussed about the future of the planet and agreed to set out principles to achieve sustainable development. The major agreement of this meeting was a 900 page program of actions with steps towards sustainable development at international levels. In 1997 the Kyoto climate summit set targets for the industrial countries in order to bring their gas emissions 5% below 1990 levels by 2012. Pioneering ways must be found to ensure that individual behavior and institutional structures will change targets, towards a sustainable future and will understand the consequences of inaction. Sustainable concept To begin with, it can be critically mentioned that the sustainable development should take into consideration the potential impacts on three main sectors, the environmental, the social and the economic; as it has been advised from Munasinghe (1993). Essentially, he advocated that, the natural habitats, the people, and the economy are interrelated and should be managed as a one. Therefore, the environmental approach it can be claimed that is so to protect the biological features, the social concept is to stabilize the cultural system and the economic approach are to maximize the income and preserve the stock of resources (Munasinghe, 1993).Ultimately, it would be imperative to append that some more important concepts in sustainable development are the futurity the equity and the irreversibility. Table 3 provides further details as per those important concepts. Further Important Concepts: Futurity: concern is given not only for the short term horizon, but also for the long term that affect the future generations. Equity: Emphasis is given to the least advantaged in society in order to provide their needs and a fair treatment. Irreversibility: Some types of environmental degradation are not possible to be restored by human ingenuity. Source: Based on Strange, T., Bayley, A., (2008) Objectives of sustainable development Taking into consideration all of the above, hence explicit information that academic definitions are providing; the reviewed literature suggests that numerous previous empirical studies have been conducted based on main advantages supported as a result of the sustainable developments up to date. Economy: Sustainable development is so to promote an economy that improves environmental quality and meet peoples needs. Energy: Reduction of energy use to suitable levels and encouragement of the consumers to spend less energy. Land use: The main concern is to minimize the loss of rural land and to maintain the viability of town centers Forestry: The main issue is the management of forests in a way that sustains their ecological qualities and their productive potentials. Climate change: The key objective is the limitation of gas emissions that contribute to climate change and global warming. Air quality: Key issues: reduction of pollutant emissions in order to improve local air quality and chemical pollution control especially in urban areas. Mineral extraction: The main objective is the minimization of the environmental harm from mineral extraction by the efficient use of materials. Waste materials: Sustainable Waste management can decrease the amount of waste production. The hierarchy of waste management options start with the reduction of waste materials, it then goes to the re-use and finally to disposal. Raw materials The raw materials inputs change depending upon the systems of MMC being factored. Common raw materials including metal, board materials, timber, concrete, class wool insulation. Off-cuts of these materials typically end up as waste within the factory environment. Timber is a raw and recycled material, timber panel products are usually kept separate from the clean timber as they are currently different to recycle. Steel is readily recycled material, due to its value established recycling routes. Also glass wool insulation is potentially recyclable Raw materials are often packaged and it is this packaging that ends up as waste. Packaging wastes have various waste management routes depending on the individual manufacturer. Modern methods of construction are about better product and processes. They aim improve business efficiency, quality environmental performance, sustainability and the predictability. MMC are more broadly based that a particular focus on product MMC should make it possible to build more with the same amount of on-site labor.MMC other than open panel techniques continue to be slightly more expensive than more established techniques but the cost ranges for different techniques overlap substantially, in any particular set of conditions in MMC could be as cost-effective as brick and block or more cost effective. Sustainable development definition One of the most popular definitions for sustainable development was given in Brundtland report (1995): â€Å"Sustainable is the development that meets the needs of the present without comprising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs† (Kirby, J, OKeefe, P., Timberlake L., 1995). This definition indicates that an activity can be considered sustainable if it doesnt exhaust the natural resources and doesnt have serious impacts to the environment that the future generations will inherit. For instance, if the ozone layer is destroyed, if the green-house gases build up, if the natural resources are exhausted and if water and air are polluted, it is reasonably obvious that this generation dont give the ability to the next one to support their selves. Sustainable development can be considered as: A theoretical framework: a method that will make the world more balanced and holistic. A process: techniques to apply the principles of integration to all decision. A target: methods of fixing the problems Sustainable construction Sustainable construction focuses on the issues of procurement, assembly and Procurement: The processes of procurement introduce the objectives that the contractors must have during the construction. These objectives may include environmental commissioning. It consist matters like site planning, tendering, selection of materials, recycling and waste minimization (Smith, P., F., (2007). standards and reporting requirements. Assembly: The assembly activities are managed by the contractors in order to contribute to the ecological performance. It consist issues as the excavation methods, the reduction of noise, the disposal of wastes and storm-water containment. Commissioning: It gives information of how the design will operate in the future. It should relate performance specifications and maintenance methods. In order the environmental performance of the construction to be improved, the site operatives and the supervisors should have a proper training (Smith, P., F., (2007).

Anne Frank Essays -- essays research papers

Jews have perished because of their beliefs since the beginning of time but never have so many Jews been persecuted worldwide as they were in World War II. Anne Frank’s diary reaches a place within all of our hearts because it reminds us how easily the innocents can suffer. Sometimes we may choose to close our eyes or look the other way when unjustifiable things happen in our society and Anne’s tale reminds us that ignorance, in part, claimed her life. Sadly, her story is but one of many of those who died in the Holocaust and as with other Jews, her fate was determined by the country she lived in, her sex and her age. Jews all over Europe feared for their lives and many were aware that the punishment for their religion depended on the country they were fortunate, or unfortunate, enough to live in. Hitler not only held prejudice against Jews, homosexuals, gypsies and those who harboured any of the above, but also held firm convictions that some countries’ citizens were fit to die, no matter their religion. No one was hit harder by this prejudice as was Poland. Hitler hated all Polish citizens and hated Polish Jews even more. In Warsaw, Jews were confined to a blocked off area which came to be known as the Warsaw Ghetto. Many of these Jews never saw outside the Ghetto again and for those who did it was only en route to a concentration camp or labour prison. Food rations inside the Ghetto were very low and though many outsiders smuggled food in, there was not nearly enough to keep everyone alive. Many died of starvation or died due to illness they had contracted because their bodies had grown so weak. Throughout the war, Sweden remained neutral and many Jews from neighbouring countries were smuggled in. Nazi police soon realized that they had to find ways to prevent this from happening and turned to the animal world. Dogs were trained to detect the scent of humans and soon, all boats leaving for Sweden were searched to detect any Jews that were hiding in basement compartments. Most Jews were discovered before they could escape and this discouraged many more from attempting to do the same. Jews that were apprehended were not treated much differently by the Nazis but the Jews left behind received the brunt of the their anger. Danish Jews in particular were often accused of planning to escape because of their proximity to Sweden. There are stories of countless ... ...opted children. When the war ended, many children did not return to their biological families because they were so young when they were stolen that they didn’t know the truth. Many that could remember were too scared to leave or feared that their parents had already been killed. Children were trained to lie without understanding why and the lies caused them to lose the ability to separate reality from fiction. Children should never have been forced to deal with so much, so quickly. They were robbed of a real childhood when they should have been encouraged to explore their surroundings. The youth, like Anne, who grew up in World War II were tainted by these events and have undergone much more trauma than most of us can even imagine. The Holocaust will forever remain one of the most horrific events in history and it is important to remember that there were many different endings for the many different Jews affected. It should not have mattered where the Jews lived, how old they were or the sex they were, none of them should have been persecuted in the first place. Reflecting on the tragic events of the war, all we can do is make sure that these horrific things never happen again.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Statement of Philosophy and Goals Essay -- Philosophy of Education Tea

Statement of Philosophy and Goals As a child playing school with the neighborhood children, I had always dreamed of becoming a teacher. Since the first day of kindergarten, watching the teacher teach us how to do basic things like counting, writing, and reading is what interested me in teaching. Throughout my elementary and secondary education I became even more interested in the teaching field. I thought that being a teacher would be the best thing in the world because a teacher has an immense amount of knowledge. Now I am in college where I am currently studying to be a secondary mathematics teacher. There are several reasons why I want to become a teacher, but the two most important reasons are to make a difference and to enrich the learning process. Everyone has to have some reason of why he or she decides to pursue his or her particular career choice. I want to become a teacher so that I can make a difference in a young person’s life. My high school calculus teacher, who was also my role model, made a difference in my life. It was her class that made me decide that I wanted to become a secondary mathematics teacher. I had a first hand experience at what it is like being a teacher during my senior year of high school by being my calculus teacher’s teacher assistant. While being her teacher assistant I experienced several things that a teacher does on a daily basis: making copies, grading papers, constructing lesson plans, and teaching/ tutoring students. I hope that when I become a teacher that I will be capable of inspiring a young person, just the same as my high school calculus teacher did for me. Another important reason why I want to become a teacher is that a teacher is constantly learning new things... ...e level I would like to teach is at the high school level. While pursuing my career as a teacher I plan on continuing my education by going on to graduate school. I am currently enrolled in college to learn how to become a teacher. A teacher must learn a variety of teaching methods and how to manage a classroom. There are six philosophies of education, and I agree with certain arguments in each one, but the three that are most important to me are essentialism, progressivism, and behaviorism. The most important of the three is essentialism; the back-to-basics approach which was enforced after the launching of Sputnik. My goals as a teacher are to make a difference and to become a role model. A teacher is continuously learning new things, and I plan on continuing my education. By going to college I am fulfilling my childhood dream of becoming a teacher.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Comparing the Struggle for Freedom in Adventures of Huckleberry Finn an

Struggle for Freedom in Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and Native Son Throughout history, great authors have served as sentinels for racism and prejudice in American society. The Mark Twain novel, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, a graphic story of 1840s America that depicts the plight of an uneducated black slave named Jim moved many to empathize with African-Americans. Compassion against the evils of slavery soon spread across the country. A war-torn America abolished slavery in 1865. However, Richard Wright’s 1940 novel, Native Son, a compelling story of the life and death of another black man, Bigger Thomas, makes a convincing argument that slavery in America was still very much alive during that period. Civil rights legislation and enforcement would not come until years later. A generation apart, Jim and Bigger embody the evolution of the black man struggling to be free in American society. On Twain’s Mississippi of the 1840’s, slaves are regarded more as property than human— there is no freedom for the black man. Jim is trapped in a society that trumpets racial hatred; for example, Huck’s father said, â€Å"they told me there was a state†¦where they’d let the nigger vote†¦I says I’ll never vote again† (Twain 35). Early in their travels, Jim and Huck mirror the chasm in black and white relations that plagues America at the time. Blinded by prejudice, Huck seems incapable of recognizing that, much like himself, Jim is scared and running from a life of few choices, towards a dream of independence. Instead, he can only see what society allows him to—the blackness of Jim’s skin. He is reluctant to be seen with Jim because he knows â€Å"People would call [him] a low-down Abolitionist and despise [him] for keeping mum† (50). Even afte... ...e and what kind of work he [can] do† (Wright 394). Bigger’s society collectively denies him freedom to better his life with â€Å"restrictions placed upon Negro education,† authorities â€Å"that make it plain in their every act that they mean to keep Bigger Thomas and his kind within rigid limits,† and real estate operators who have â€Å"agreed among themselves to keep Negroes within ghetto-areas of cities† (394). Unlike Jim, Bigger can’t escape his slavery by running to the free north. His slavery is all-encompassing. Jim only sees freedom at face value, so his can be achieved. He can only hope for freedom in its simplest form†¦ release from the physical shackles of slavery. Bigger’s freedom begins where Jim’s leaves off. Works Cited Twain, Mark. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. New York: Harper & Row, 1885. Wright, Richard. Native Son. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1940.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

My Voice Matters Essay

There’s something marvelous about spoken words that differs from a written speech. Our emphasis, our expressions, every time we express some sort of sound from our thoughts, excreting noise from the depths of our being, that’s our true signature. Since I have such a powerful tool available to myself, I don’t understand why I never fully use it to the advantage. I believe, that since my voices matter, I should make more of an effort to talk to my peers face to face. In my day and age, my generation is known for its dependence to our distraction. I seem to have lost the ability to talk to my peers. Everybody is more confident over barriers, where it is not required to actually reveal one’s face. I yearn to be more interactive and communicative with my peers, but what is it that holds me back? I have all I need in front of me, but my youth is lost in the consolidation of corruption, and the decision is up to me to make the right choice either take the narrow path which leads to accomplishment or the broad path which leads to destruction. Friendship is a prime example of a troubling decision. Having a quantity of friends always bothers me, but finding the quality in people is harder to find. At time it feels as if I’m drowning in a sea of children, each step as I roam as a gadabout to find intimate relationship, but time seems to go and pass through my hand. Experiencing change is adequate to learning a second language or similar to expressive aphasia. Knowing what you want; however, you don’t know how to explain such a thing. I am missing out on the teenage experience of trial and error by taking life on precaution rather than taking risks. Furthermore, it’s not just me wasting my time on desires. I spend so much time on thoughts than pursuing my goals. Everybody is out there with set goals, accomplishing them, everywhere. Why has my voices lost importance? To add on, when I’m simply writing down words out to print, it is impossible to fully express myself. Parts of the words are lost, because one just can’t thoroughly share their emotion through written words. I need to talk to others, face to face. Humans instinctively and subconsciously judge. After I saw my realization I knew in fact I must surmount my barrier on my muteness, casting the burden by the interaction of all that shackles me down from my achievements. I have found my character of a man of compassion, integrity and hope for a brighter future in the world to guide meaning people who has gone through the similar pariah-ism of self-confidence. I was meant for more than that. My voice is important! I’m meant to speak with others, creating a fellowship, a community, with the power of our voice. My voice matters.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Role of Angels

New Testament November 5, 2012 Role of Angels Unlike most books in the Bible, where they are mostly historical, Revelation is a book on prophecy. It is believed that John the Apostle. The word ‘revelation’ means ‘unveiling’, it is the unveiling of an apocalypse. It is the only apocalyptic book in the Bible. In Revelation, Jesus will come again to show his servants what is going to happen. This is similar to the Gospel of John, where Jesus comes to show what his Father has shown him.Angles come from the Greek word from a , meaning angel, or â€Å"knowledge† (â€Å"Angels today: all about angels†) also the term angel† in Aramaic, MALAKHA, means â€Å"messenger†. Angels have the knowledge of God’s word and are messengers to spread his word. Angels are also found in many religions, including Christianity, Islam, and Judaism. They are either guardians or messengers from God, â€Å"In some cultures, they are believed to be the mo st powerful type of fairy† (â€Å"Angels today: all about angels†).Is there a hierarchy in Angles? There are some that believe there is. â€Å"Scholars of the Middle Ages believed that angels and archangels were lowest in the order because they were the most involved in the world of men and thus more susceptible to sin. † (â€Å"Angels today: all about angels†). The hierarchy according to Angels today are; first hierarchy seraphim and cherubim. Seraph is mentioned in Isaiah 6:1-7 with six wings, two covered their faces, two covered with feet and two were for flying.Cherubim’s are mentioned in Ezekiel 1:5 as, appearance form that of a man, but each of them had four faces and four wings, their legs were straight; their feet were like those of a calf, under their wings they had hands of a man. Second hierarchy includes dominions and powers or authorities, mentioned in Ephesians 6:12 â€Å"For our struggle is not against flesh and blood, but against th e rulers, against the authorities, against the powers of this dark world and against the spiritual forces of evil in the heavenly realms†. The third and final tier of the hierarchy is the angels’ archangels.Angels are known as the messages of God. Archangels come from Greek meaning chief angel. The word Archangel only comes up twice in the New Testament and only once with an angels name, Archangel Michael in Jude 1:9. It’s noted that the word archangel is never plural in the New Testament, but in other books there is other mentions of other archangels; Raphael in the Book of Tobit, Uriel in the second Book of Esdras and Gabriel is believed to be an archangel but has no direct mentions of it. It is the making of four archangels.Angels play an important role in the book of Revelation, being involved with many of God's judgments upon the earth. Revelation starts with the breaking of the seven seals. The first four summon the Four Horsemen, White Horseman to conquer and spread the gospel, Red Horseman represents war to make man slaughter each other, Black Horseman represents famine, and the Pale Horseman represents death (Rev 6:1-8). The fifth seal brought the souls of those who had been slain because of the words of God to the altar (Rev 6:9). The sixth seal caused a great earthquake (Rev 6:12).When the seventh seal was broken, seven angels came down from heaven with seven trumpets representing the seven plagues (Rev 8:2). First trumpet sounded and hail and fire mixed with blood is hurled to the earth. One third of earth is burned up; one third of trees and all green grass is burned up. Second trumpet sounded and a huge, blazing mountain thrown into sea; one third of the sea turned to blood; one third of sea creatures died; one third of ships destroyed. Third trumpet sounded and a blazing star fell on one third of rivers and springs of water, one third of waters turned bitter killing many people.Forth trumpet sounded and one third of sun, moon , and stars are struck, one third of the day was dark and one third of night. Fifth trumpet sounded and a star fallen from the sky is given the key to unlock the abyss. The sun, moon, and stars were darkened by smoke from the abyss as locusts came down upon the earth; these creatures had power to torment those who did not have the seal of God on their foreheads for five months. Sixth a release the four angels bound at the river Euphrates; one third of mankind is killed; a two hundred million man army is organized and activated. Rev 8-9). Seventh angel blew his horn starting the battle of Armageddon, then came flashes of lightning, rumbling, peals of thunder and a severe earthquake (Rev 16:16-17). Some of these plagues are very similar to the plagues of Moses. The first trumpet is similar to the eighth plague in Moses, the Lord said ‘Take handfuls of soot from a furnace and have Moses toss it into the air in the presence of Pharaoh. It will become fine dust over the whole land of Egypt and Festering boils will break out on men and animals throughout the land. (Exodus 9:8-9). The second trumpet is like the first plague in Moses, where every stream, canal, reservoir, and even the water in wooden buckets and stone jars were turned to blood (Exodus 7:19). The fourth trumpet is like the ninth plague, and the LORD said unto Moses, Stretch out tine hand toward heaven, that there may be darkness over the land of Egypt, even darkness which may be felt. And Moses stretched forth his hand toward heaven; and there was a thick darkness in all the land of Egypt three days (Exodus 10:21-22).Finally the locusts coming from abyss and tormenting those without the seal of God, is both like the locusts of the eighth plague, bringing locusts to Egypt in Exodus 10:4 and that without the sign on them from Exodus 9:8. The start of Armageddon could have well before Revelation, but in Revelation 12:7-9, â€Å"And there was war in heaven. Michael and his angels fought against the dragon, and the dragon and his angels fought back. But he was not strong enough, and they lost their place in heaven. The great dragon was hurled down – that ancient serpent called the devil or Satan, who leads the whole world astray.He was hurled to the earth and his angels with him†. This all-out war in heaven forced Satan down to earth and to be enslaved till the day of Armageddon. â€Å"Satan, being a very intelligent foe, well remembers how he was outgunned in that battle. His angels are no match for Christ (Michael) and heavens angel army, so if they ever meet again he will need serious reinforcements. † (Cross). After Satan was defeated and sent to hell, one could imagine how Satan must have felt and waiting, planning for the day he could come back for one last final battle.After being defeated in heaven he will be looking for a fairer playing field, here on earth. Satan is preparing his army during the blowing of trumpets and the seven plagues. â€Å"The n they gathered the kings together to the place that in Hebrew is called Armageddon† (Rev 16:16). The start of the battle of Armageddon starts in Revelation 19, â€Å"I saw heaven standing open and there before me was a white horse, whose rider is called Faithful and True. With justice He judges and makes war. His eyes are like blazing fire, and on his head are many crowns. He has a name written on him that no one but he himself knows.He is dressed in a robe dipped in blood, and his name is the Word of God. The armies of heaven were following him, riding on white horses and dressed in fine linen, white and clean. Out of his mouth comes a sharp sword with which to strike down the nations. ‘He will rule them with an iron scepter’ He treads the winepress of the fury of the wrath of God almighty. On his robe and on his thigh he has this name written: King of kings and Lord of lords†. Who is this guy on the white horse? The White Horseman? He’s not the Ki ngs of kings or the Lord of lords.Is this Jesus himself setting off into a glorious battle, or just another angel or heavenly being. To sum up what the battle of Armageddon is, â€Å"It is simply the final battle between Satan and his armies fighting against Christ and his armies for mastery and ownership of the world, and the final defeat of Satan’s rebellion †¦ and human against human, the 200,000,000 man army created by the kings of the earth and Christ. The outcome is such that sinners are destroyed and all sin is contained, for 1000 years† (Cross). Revelation 21 â€Å"The New Jerusalem† is the only time a New Jerusalem is mentioned. Because the book was written after the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem in A. D. 70† (Price). During Jesus times, his disciples wanted him to bring them a New Jerusalem and bring power back from the Romans. There is a slight reference to the destruction of the temple by the Romans in Revelations. â€Å"I did no t see a temple in the city, because the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb is its temple† (Rev 22:22). The best description of this New Jerusalem is, â€Å"made ready as a bride adorned for her husband†¦ the bride, the wife of the Lamb† (Rev 21:2-9).Randall Price pointed out the Jewish tradition that John would have knew well and the metaphor that is used in Revelation 21. â€Å"In John 14:2. The background of the marriage metaphor is the Jewish custom of the bridegroom husband leaving the bride at the betrothal to prepare a new house where they would dwell together once he returned to take away his bride. † (Price). This city is heaven on earth, â€Å"Nothing impure will ever enter, nor will anyone who does what is shameful or deceitful, but only those whose names are written in the Lamb’s book of life† (Rev 21:27).In Revelation 22, there is another angel that shows John the river of the water of life and the tree of life. The river flowed from th e throne of God down the middle of the great city â€Å"New Jerusalem† and the tree of life â€Å"bearing twelve crops of fruit, yielding its fruit every month. And the leaves of the tree are for the healing of nations. No longer will there be any curse. † (Rev 22: 2-3). This is the city of God and is protected from all things evil. After John had witnessed this vision he fell down before the angel who showed him, and the angel told him, â€Å"Do not do it!I am a fellow servant with you and with your brothers the prophets and all who keep words of this book. Worship God! † Today we see many influences of angels in the modern world. There are shows like Touched by an Angel and Supernatural and show angels in them. These shows show the interaction of angels with people and the hierarchy of angels. The angels in Revelation are the beginning of Armageddon, come to fight the army of Satan and show the promised land of New Jerusalem. Work Cited â€Å"Angels today: al l about angels†.Web. November 4, 2012. Cross, Jack. The Apocalypse of Jesus; the Angels and the Earth, â€Å"Revelation† 2012. Web. November 4, 2012. Cross, Jack. The Apocalypse of Jesus; the Angels and the Earth, â€Å"Ehe End of the Conflict† 2012. Web. November 4, 2012. Price, Randall. â€Å"The New Jerusalem†. Jerusalem in Prophecy, Harvest House Publishers. 1998. Digital File. November 4, 2012. Zondervan NIV Study Bible. Fully rev. ed. Kenneth L. Barker, gen. ed. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2002. Print. November 4, 2012.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Ricardo’s theory of rent Essay

     Ã‚  Ã‚  The term â€Å"rent† comes from the Latin word â€Å"rendita’, which means â€Å"returned†. Rent as an income of one of the factors of land attracted attention since old times. Further, in the economic theory the concept of economic rent as a part of income of any factor appeared and developed. One of the theorists that formed and developed the concept of rent was David Ricardo, who is considered to be one of the fathers of the theory of rent. However, despite the old origins, the theory has been criticized a lot by both theorists and practitioners.   Ã‚   David Ricardo first mentioned rent in his book â€Å"The foundations of political economy and taxes† (1817). In this book, Ricardo defines rent as a part of the land product, which is paid to the landowner for the use of the soil. The logic of Ricardo is quite simple. Given the law of supply and demand, nobody pays for the use of air and water (as well as any other nature’s gift, which is widely available). Thus, any brewer or producer of any good constantly uses air and water to produce their goods. But because the air and water are limitless, they are not paid for. Following this logic, Ricardo comes to a conclusion that rent is paid for the use of soil just because the amount of land is not limitless and the quality of land is not the same. With the rise of the population, the worst land or the lands that are situated inconveniently are also get cultivated. When the cultivation touches the lands of so-called second category, i.e. the worse, the lands of the first category simultaneously form the rent, which depends on the quality of those two types of land.   Ã‚   The peculiarity of Ricardo’s theory lies in the fact that he approached the rent as a concept from only one perspective. Ricardo thought of rent as a solely agricultural one. Moreover, Ricardian rent is a rent for a raw product of agriculture in general, but not the rent for the land given for the one peculiar type of a product. It is considered that the land used as a field cannot be used a pasture; labor and capital change from one piece of land to another, but the use of soil itself remains unchangeable. Because the amount of land is limited, as it was already mentioned, and it is used in a single way, rent is determined by price and not vice-versa. According to Ricardo, the rent is paid because the bread is expensive and not vice-versa. (Henderson, 1922)   Ã‚   Practitioners notice that Ricardo’s theory of rent has also another shortcoming. Ricardian rent is solely the payment for the soil itself. Thus, it excludes any payment for the interest on capital invested by landowner in the form of buildings, drain constructions etc. Moreover, Ricardo’s concept of rent also excludes the income from the wood development or the extraction of any mineral resources on the rented land. There remains the â€Å"pure† rent for soil, which is regarded as the land designed for cultivation and not touched raw material richness, which is though limited in amount and completely specialized on the production of one type of product not considering certain distinctions in placement and fertility.   Ã‚   However, later on Ricardo developed another branch of his theory. According to Ricardo, rent has two sources. If the land is homogenous, its limit provokes the rent of â€Å"rareness†. In this case, rent is a difference between the product of all applied capital and labor and the product of the final input in the form of intensive use of soil. When the land differs in quality, the limited amount of certain quality is the source of so-called differentiated rent. Ricardo thought that Europe of that time had quite substantial amount of land, which didn’t give rent. However, from the perspective of his theory, nothing could have changed, if this had been true. Rent wouldn’t be simply differentiated, but would have remained the rent of â€Å"rareness†.   Ã‚   The important input of Ricardo’s theory is the fact that he proved that the source of rent was the work of labor that cultivated the land. Thus, rent becomes a social phenomenon in Ricardo’s theory. The emergence of rent is connected with the emergence of private ownership for land. The emergence of differentiated rent Ricardo explained from the point of view of the law of value. Differentiated rent in Ricardo’s theory doesn’t arise as the special form of added value, i.e. the exploitation of hired labor, though Ricardo characterizes rent as added product.   Ã‚   Yet, because of the insufficient development of labor theory of value and inappropriate and insufficient understanding of the correlation between value and the price of a product, Ricardo didn’t research the absolute land rent and denied its existence based on the fact that it didn’t conform to the law of value. Ricardo though that because the cost of agricultural products produced under the worst conditions regulate the cost and the price of all the rest of the same products, those lands cannot give any rent, because rent is a difference between the cost of production on the worst pieces of land. Otherwise, rent would be simple margin for the price of a product. Aspiring to retain this basis, Ricardo denied the existence of absolute land rent. Another reason why Ricardo denied the existence of absolute rent was the fact that he didn’t understand the division of capital on constant and variable parts. Thus, Ricardo failed to detect the difference in organic structure of capital in industry and agriculture, and consequently the excess of added value in agriculture, which is actually construct the absolute rent.   Ã‚   In such a way, though Ricardo contributed much to the overall understanding of economic theory and the theory of rent in particular, the latter has many inherent flaws derived from the misunderstanding and fault mixture between the concept of value and the concept of price. The main advantage of the theory is the definition of so-called differentiated rent, i.e. the attempt of the explanation of the economic essence of rent. The foremost fault of Ricardo’s theory of rent on the earliest stages is that he regarded rent as the payment solely for the use of soil, excluding reinvested capital and interest. The second foremost flaw of the theory is the denial of the existence of the absolute rent, thinking that rent can be derived only from those land that are more fertile. However, Ricardo didn’t count the fact that landowners of worse land wouldn’t give this land in temporary usage for free. References Debrah Y. (2002) â€Å"Globalization, Employment and the Workplace† Routledge, London Henderson H. (1922) â€Å"Supply and demand† McGraw Hills, New York March, James G., and Simon, Herbert A., (1958). Organizations. New York: McGraw Hill Moorhead G. and Griffin Ricky W. (1995), Organizational Behavior, 4th ed., Houghton Muffin Company, Boston, MA Shove G. F. Varying costs and marginal net products // Econ. J. 1928. Vol. 38. Jun. P. 258-266 Winters A. (1992) â€Å"International Economics† Routledge, London