Saturday, November 30, 2019

Strength and Conditioning Article Critique

â€Å"Strength Training for the Warfighter† an article by William Kraemer and Tunde Szivak discusses methods that can be used to make endurance training for soldiers and professional athletes more effective.Advertising We will write a custom article sample on Strength and Conditioning Article Critique specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Kraemer and Szivak deviate from the traditional methods used in endurance training for soldiers which focused on physical fitness. Kraemer and Szivak propose that endurance training for soldiers should be based on mission requirements that involve tailoring endurance training programs to meet the psychological, physical, and environmental challenges encountered on the battlefield. These scholars maintain that the main purpose of endurance training programs is to increase power and maximal strength because they are the basis of neuromuscular fitness. Another aim of endurance or resistance traini ng is to shield soldiers from injuries and improve performance (Kraemer , Szivak, 2012). Kraemer and Szivak argue that in order to come up with effective endurance training programs, one needs to understand physiological principles of power and strength development. In order to make muscles more powerful, an endurance training program should be designed in a way that stimulate more motor units. Current endurance training programs used by the military are ineffective because they stimulate a few motor units. In designing an effective endurance training program, certain variables need to be taken into consideration.Advertising Looking for article on health medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These include choice of the program, order of exercises, load resistance used, rest between exercises, and number of sets. These variables should be designed to enable concurrent training, which is training both the anaerobic and aero bic metabolic systems (Kraemer , Szivak, 2012). Lastly, Kraemer and Szivak also stress on the need of paying attention to workout styles. In regard to this, Kraemer and Szivak advocate for a flexible nonlinear approach because it incorporates several workouts. Ideally, in endurance training, one should start with minor workouts, followed by light workouts, moderate workouts, heavy workouts, and finally very heavy workouts (Kraemer , Szivak, 2012). Kraemer and Szivak make important points when it comes to designing endurance programs for soldiers. Currently, soldiers are subjected to heavy endurance training, mainly in the form of long-distance running that is not compatible with their needs in the battle field (Ferruggia, 2008). Additionally, long-distance running does not give soldiers the necessary muscle mass and strength they need to deal with the challenges on the modern battlefield. This is because it does not train the relevant muscles and motor units. Kraemer and Szivak†™s proposition that military endurance training should be tailored to meet the needs of soldiers is essential.Advertising We will write a custom article sample on Strength and Conditioning Article Critique specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Kraemer and Szivak’s proposal for designing military endurance programs is also useful. They suggest that military endurance programs do not have to be linear and rigid. Military commanders and trainers should let soldiers engage in exercises, they feel comfortable with without forcing them to stick to a strict training schedule. In addition, Kraemer and Szivak maintain that effective endurance training programs should allow soldiers adequate rest between training sessions. This is useful as the current military endurance training programs overwork soldiers, leading to depletion and damage to their muscles, instead of building them (Baechle , Earle, 2008). Kraemer and Szivak clearly ind icate that effective endurance training programs are not based on long training hours and heavy physical exercises, but on understanding the needs of soldiers in the battlefield and body physiology. However, Kraemer and Szivak fail to elaborate what types of exercises are effective in endurance training. References Baechle, T. R., Earle, R. W. (2008). Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning (3rd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Ferruggia, J. (2008). Fit to fight: an insanely effective strength and conditioning program for the ultimate MMA warrior. New York: Avery. Kraemer, W. J., Szivak, T. K. (2012). Strength Training For the Warfighter. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 26(7): 107–118. This article on Strength and Conditioning Article Critique was written and submitted by user Ricky R. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Free Essays on Revolutions 1848

The February Revolution in France gave impetus to a series of revolutionary explosions in Western and Central Europe. However the new French Republic did not support these movements. The stage was set when the unrest caused by the economic effects of severe crop failures in 1846–47 merged with the discontent caused by political repression of liberal and nationalist aspirations. In the German states, popular demonstrations and uprisings (Feb.–Mar., 1848) led to the dismissal of unpopular ministers and the calling of a national parliament to draft a constitution for a united Germany. While the constitution was debated at length, rulers of the German states were able to recover their authority. By 1849, the Frankfurt Parliament and the provisional government it established had collapsed and the old order was restored. The revolution within the Austrian Empire was one of initial success and subsequent defeat. In contrast to the situation in Germany, however, revolutionists in the Hapsburg domains demanded less central authority and a more autonomous role for the national groups. Lack of cooperation among the revolutionary movements and the loyalty of the armies to old authorities permitted the suppression of the insurgents by armed might. In Italy, the demand for expulsion of the Austrians and for national unification found a champion in King Charles Albert of Sardinia, but again Austrian armies put down the revolutions. The revolutions of 1848 failed notably because three kinds of demands- social and economic, liberal, and national- were not easily reconciled. This is illustrated in France by the Socialists Blanc and Albert on the one side, and the Liberal Republicans Marie and Arago on the other. Middle-class moderates like Lamartine gained control of the revolutionary movements and resisted the more radical demands of the lower classes, thus losing much of the popular support that was essential to their success. The results of the ... Free Essays on Revolutions 1848 Free Essays on Revolutions 1848 The February Revolution in France gave impetus to a series of revolutionary explosions in Western and Central Europe. However the new French Republic did not support these movements. The stage was set when the unrest caused by the economic effects of severe crop failures in 1846–47 merged with the discontent caused by political repression of liberal and nationalist aspirations. In the German states, popular demonstrations and uprisings (Feb.–Mar., 1848) led to the dismissal of unpopular ministers and the calling of a national parliament to draft a constitution for a united Germany. While the constitution was debated at length, rulers of the German states were able to recover their authority. By 1849, the Frankfurt Parliament and the provisional government it established had collapsed and the old order was restored. The revolution within the Austrian Empire was one of initial success and subsequent defeat. In contrast to the situation in Germany, however, revolutionists in the Hapsburg domains demanded less central authority and a more autonomous role for the national groups. Lack of cooperation among the revolutionary movements and the loyalty of the armies to old authorities permitted the suppression of the insurgents by armed might. In Italy, the demand for expulsion of the Austrians and for national unification found a champion in King Charles Albert of Sardinia, but again Austrian armies put down the revolutions. The revolutions of 1848 failed notably because three kinds of demands- social and economic, liberal, and national- were not easily reconciled. This is illustrated in France by the Socialists Blanc and Albert on the one side, and the Liberal Republicans Marie and Arago on the other. Middle-class moderates like Lamartine gained control of the revolutionary movements and resisted the more radical demands of the lower classes, thus losing much of the popular support that was essential to their success. The results of the ...

Friday, November 22, 2019

Definition and Examples of Family Slang in English

Definition and Examples of Family Slang in English The informal term family slang refers to words and phrases (neologisms) created, used, and generally understood only by the members of a family. Also called kitchen table lingo, family words, and domestic slang. A lot of these words, says Bill Lucas, a trustee of the English Project at Winchester University, are inspired by the sound or the look of a thing, or are driven by an emotional response to that being described. Examples [Examples of this] sort of vocabulary [i.e., family slang or kitchen table lingo] . . . include words for items for which no standard name exists, like Blenkinsop (a comical-sounding but authentic British family name) for the little tab which slides across the top of self-sealing plastic bags for refrigeration, or trunklements to describe bits and pieces, personal possessions. Words which have moved into wider circulation such as helicopter and velcroid for intrusive parents or neighbors, howler for baby, and chap-esse for female probably originated in family usage. (Tony Thorne,  Dictionary of Contemporary Slang, 4th ed.  Bloomsbury,  Ã‚  2014)Greebles and TwangerIf there was no word for a thing, Sally Wallace invented it: greebles meant little bits of lint, especially those which feet brought into bed; twanger was the word for something whose name you dont know or cant remember. (D.T. Max, The Unfinished. The New Yorker, March 9, 2009)Hotchamachacha!One of [my fathers] favori te words Ive never heard on anyone elses lips: hotchamachacha! I imagine this began life as a conjurors invocation, like abracadabra. My father uses it, though, to create a general sense of humorous mystification (Am I going to get a chemistry set for my birthday, Daddy? Hotchamachacha!), or to pour scorn on what someone (usually me) is saying (Come onquickseven nines! Um... eighty-two? Hotchamachacha!), or to warn you urgently against doing something dangherooz. (Michael Frayn, My Fathers Fortune: A Life. Metropolitan Books, 2010) KaboofI’m 64 years old and ever since I can remember, we’ve called the area under stairs (the crawlspace) the kaboof. (Paula Pocius, Grammar Composition blog, December 31, 2007)Missmas CardsMissmas Cards are those you send after receiving Christmas Cards from people to whom you would not have sent, and which will surely arrive at their destination after Christmas. (Tanja, Grammar Composition blog, December 31, 2007)Manniversary and Mundungus DrawerThe Today program (Today, BBC Radio 4) asked its listeners to e-mail in their kitchen table lingo:Manniversary: John Roser and his partner use this to describe their annual anniversary.Mundungus Drawer: a drawer in Caroline Harris kitchen where everything and anything lives. Splosh, Gruds, and Frarping: Family Slang in Britain Linguists have published a new list of ‘domestic’ slang words which they say are now commonplace in British homes. Unlike some other slang, these words are used by people of all generations and are often used as a way to bond with other family members. According to the research, people are now more than likely to ask for splosh, chupley or blish when they fancy a cup of tea. And among the 57 new words identified meaning television remote control are blabber, zapper, melly and dawicki. The new words were published this week in the Dictionary of Contemporary Slang  [2014],  which examines the changing language of today’s society... Other household slang used by families include grooglums, the bits of food left in the sink after washing up, and slabby-gangaroot, the dried ketchup left around the mouth of the bottle.The personal possessions of a grandparent are now referred to as trunklements, while underpants are known as gruds.And in less well-mannered households, there is a new word for the act of scratching one’s backsidefrarping. (Eleanor Harding, Fancy a Blish? The Daily Mail [UK], March 3, 2014) Homely Terms - Family slang undoubtedly does in one way or another modify and create novel forms of speech which tend to become homely terms of unconventional usage. It may even be true that the most insignificant member of the family, the baby, may have the greatest influence in the matter of introducing novel forms. (Granville Hall, The Pedagogical Seminary, 1913)- More often than not, family words can be traced back to a child or grandparent, and sometimes they get passed down from generation to generation. They seldom escape the province of one family or a small cluster of familiesso are therefore seldom written down and must be gathered in conversation. (Paul Dickson, Family Words, 2007)

Thursday, November 21, 2019

The Simulator-Manual Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

The Simulator-Manual Paper - Essay Example :   Ã‚   This is a sample experimental run file   Ã‚   Seed: 0  Ã‚   Algorithm: FCFS Group Processes First Arrival Interarrival Duration CPU Burst I/O Burst 1 8 2.0 constant 4.00 uniform 8.00 14.00 constant 10.00 constant 6.00 Experimental Runs For 1 Experiment Experiment Commentary Run Modifications myexp This experiment contains 1 run myrun_1 algorithm FCFS key First Come First Served Starting run from experiment myexp Tue Feb 21 05:07:29 EST 2012 Starting run from myrun_1 Starting to run events using FCFS 40 events done in 18 milliseconds Event List at Time 86.58 Process  Scheduling  Simulator version  1.100L288  by  S.  Robbins   supported  by  NSF  grants   DUE-9750953  and  DUE-9752165. ... 1  05:07:32  EST  2012 Event  list  size  is  0  at  86.58 Tue  Feb  21  05:07:33  EST  2012 Number  of  new  processes  0  at  time  86.58 Tue  Feb  21  05:07:34  EST  2012 Number  of  waiting  processes  0  at  time  86.58 Tue  Feb  21  05:07:36  EST  2012 Number  of  processes  8  at  time  86.58   ID  Ã‚  Ã‚  State  Ã‚  Ã‚  Started  Ã‚  Ã‚  Finished  In  CPU  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Used  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Total  Ã‚  Waiting   Ã‚  1  Ã‚  Ã‚  done  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  2.00  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  43.10  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  2  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  12.44  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  12.44  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  22.66   Ã‚  2  Ã‚  Ã‚  done  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  6.00  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  76.72  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  2  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  13.62  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  13.62  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  51.10   Ã‚  3  Ã‚  Ã‚  done  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  10.00  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  31.52  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   1  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  9.52  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  9.52  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  12.00   Ã‚  4  Ã‚  Ã‚  done  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  14.00  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  40.66  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  1  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  9.14  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  9.14  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  17.52   Ã‚  5  Ã‚  Ã‚  done  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  18.00  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  86.43  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  2  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  10.42  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  10.42  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  52.01   Ã‚  6  Ã‚  Ã‚  done  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  22.00  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  86.53  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  2  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  10.10  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  10.10  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  48.43   Ã‚  7  Ã‚  Ã‚  done  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  26.00  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  86.58  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  2  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  10.05  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  10.05  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  44.53   Ã‚  8  Ã‚  Ã‚  done  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  30.00  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  86.01  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  1  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  9.29  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  9.29  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  46.72 Tue  Feb  21  05:07:37  EST  2012 Number  of  ready  processes  0  at  time  86.58 Tue  Feb  21  05:07:38  EST  2012 Number  of  finished  processes  8  at  time  86.58   ID  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Started  Ã‚  Ã‚  Finished  Ã‚  CPU  Total   Ã‚  Ã‚  3  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  10.00  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  31.52  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  9.52   Ã‚  Ã‚  4  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  14.00  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  40.66  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  9.14   Ã‚  Ã‚  1  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  2.00  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  43.10  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  12.44   Ã‚  Ã‚  2  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  6.00  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  76.72  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  13.62   Ã‚  Ã‚  8  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  30.00  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  86.01  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  9.29

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Advantages and Disadvantages of Corporate Social Responsibility Essay

Advantages and Disadvantages of Corporate Social Responsibility - Essay Example This paper illustrates that there are three CSR theories, which are interdisciplinary; utilitarian, relational, and managerial theories. Utilitarian theories emphasize on a maximization of profit, hence related to theories of competitive advantage. The managerial theory, on the other hand, has the CSR approached internally; meaning that anything exterior to the business is taken into account for the firm’s decision-making. The Relational theory has to do with the complex firm-environment relationships. The implication here is that the firm-environment relationships form the focus of the CRS analysis. In the CRS, business in society comes up as a matter of interplay between the two. Thus, the relational theory is value-based and interdependent between the corporation and mankind. CSR is important to both the agency and the consumers in a number of ways: for companies, it helps them create a better public image since their public image is at the mercy of their social responsibil ity strategies and how their customers are mindful of them. According to Cone Communications, 90% of the consumers would avoid doing business with corporations if there were no social responsibility plan. Studies indicate that firms heavily involved in funds and goods donation to Non-governmental and other non-profit making organizations and schools are likely to increase the likelihood of consumers buying their products. At the same time, a corporation that takes care to ensure that the primal matter used in its products are environmentally secure and the manufacturing process is sustainable is more eye-catching to the society.

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Focusing on the first scene Essay Example for Free

Focusing on the first scene Essay At the beginning of the play, from Alfieris monologue you can tell that there is constant tension between the people in the neighbourhood because of when he says how I often think that behind that suspicious little nod of theirs lie three thousand years of distrust. This shows that this trust hasnt been broken recently, it has been going back generations upon generations. The comment Oh, there were many here who were justly shot by unjust men. Justice is very important here says to the reader that no matter how much violence it may lead to it will be done, and in the hands of the Italian civilians. They dont go to the police and instead fight it out themselves. Things are obviously starting to calm down now though because Alfieri no longer keeps a pistol in his filing cabinet and says that people are now quite civilized, quite American. When we first meet the Carbone family, we see an excited Catherine welcoming Eddie home from a long day of working in the docks. Catherine obviously has been waiting around for his approval of her new dress because she is very excited when she asks him what he thinks, (running her hands over her skirt) I just got it. You like it? and when he also asks about her hair change she wants his immediate approval. Eddie delivers with flattering comments like oh, your mother was alive to see you now and you look like one of them girls that went to college which is a complement in itself because it is saying she looks smart and sophisticated and not like any average person. Eddies comment about how the dress looks a bit short when she sits down and how she walks is what reveals his protectiveness over her and how she may look attractive to other men. Listen, you been giving me the willies the way you walk down the street Im telling you youre walking wavy He doesnt like that she may seem attractive to other guys in the neighbourhood. This upsets Catherine because Eddies approval obviously must mean so much to her. She even almost breaks into tears because he disapproves of how she walks. Eddie has always treated Catherine like a baby, even now when shes 17 years old he says Youre a baby, you dont understand these things. when he talks about her waving to Louis he warns her that I could tell you things about Louis which you wouldnt wave to him no more. Louis is obviously not the nice guy that Catherine thinks he his and seems like he has a dark past. From Catherines comment about how I wish there was one guy you couldnt tell me about means that Eddies has a dark story about every guy in the neighbourhood which is so bad it would actually lead to an end of conversation between them and Catherine. Beatrice and Eddies relationship has an obvious problem which is that he has more feelings for Catherine than he does for Beatrice. Which Beatrice realises but Eddie doesnt. At the beginning Beatrice isnt so open about the fact that she knows Eddies has feelings for his niece, but after some time she starts to argue with Eddie whenever its just them left in the room. But right now at the beginning Beatrice doesnt speak it out. When Eddie tells Catherine that Beatrices cousins have landed, B. is very concerned about how the house looks and that she hasnt bought a new table cloth (astounded and afraid) Im I just I cant believe it! I didnt even buy a new tablecloth; I was gonna wash the walls. Eddie is actually a nice and caring person and not just the guy who brings in the money. He reassures Beatrice that Listen, theyll think its a millionaires house compared to the way they live this calms her down a bit but she is still a little doubtful until Eddie says Youre saving their lives, whatre you worrying about the table cloth? They probably didnt see a tablecloth in their whole life where they come from which begins to calm her down. When Beatrice and Catherine reveal to Eddie that Catherine may start working, it isnt surprising that Eddie is worried because he has feelings for her and obviously doesnt want her to go to work and meet other men. Also Eddie obviously usually has say in the house because as soon as they say Catherine has a job he replies with what job? Shes gonna finish school. When Catherine tries to change his mind he interrupts her and says No no, you gonna finish school. It seems everything has to go through eddies approval before anybody can make any changes to anything. But when the two women manage to get him to half agree he still isnt sure about it. The stage direction showing that hes strangely nervous proves this. It seems like there is no end to his questions because it goes from wheres the job? What company? to Nostrand Avenue and where? to what about all the stuff you wouldnt learn this year though. Eddie is just trying to keep Catherine at school so she will still be living in the house. If she makes her own money sooner or later she will move away. If she has been offered a job and been told she is the best student in the class there is no more for her to learn. Then it turns to That aint what I wanted, though. Which shows that Eddie had a plan set out for Catherine this whole time which would probably keep her in the house for as long as possible and now she wont be following it. He still tries to convince her that she shouldnt go to work by saying Near the Navy Yard plenty can happen in a block and a half. And a plumbing company! Thats one step over the water front. Theyre practically longshoremen. Eddie himself is a longshoreman so this obviously means if she is going to leave he wants her to leave to better people than himself or Louis or the plumbers at her stenography job. Beatrice replies with Yeah, but shell be in the office, Eddie but again its not what Eddie had in mind. He had had good intentions for Catherine because he wanted her to be with different kind of people. I want you to be in a nice office. Maybe a lawyers office in New York in one of them nice buildings. He obviously doesnt want her to go because when Beatrice tells him to think about it (he is silent, staring down at the tablecloth, fingering the pattern). Beatrice tells him that shell get out of the subway and be in the office in two minutes but Eddie is somehow sickened by the idea of her working in that neighbourhood. After some time Eddie actually agrees to let her work, Catherine is excited and says that she will buy new dishes with her first pay and Eddie replies with a sudden and then youll move away Catherine denies this accusation but Eddie still carries on with Why not? Thats life. And youll come visit on Sundays, then once a month, then Christmas and New Years, finally Catherine again denies the accusation but Eddie is hurt that she will be leaving him and the house and this shows he isnt ready to move on yet.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Various Essays On Goldings Lord Of The Flies -- essays research pape

1. Given that Piggy represents society and its rules, he must have found his situation on the island disturbing at the least. At first, there is no organized social structure of any kind; no position of leadership existed. There was an absence of rules. This must have been very disturbing to Piggy. Then, as the story progresses, a sort of chain of leadership emerges with Ralph being voted as â€Å"chief.† â€Å"Ralph raised his hand for silence. ‘All right. Who wants Jack for chief?’ With dreary obedience the choir raised their hands. ‘Who wants me?’ Every hand outside the choir except Piggy’s was raised immediately. Then, Piggy too, raised his hand grudgingly into the air. Ralph counted. ‘I’m chief then.’†(LoF p21). Then, a little bit later, Ralph brings up the idea of rules: â€Å"Jack was on his feet. ‘We’ll have rules!’ he cried excitedly. Lots of rules! Then when anyone breaks them-’à ¢â‚¬ (LoF p33). When the â€Å"hunters† kill their first pig is when we start to see signs of a more primal society, or lack thereof. They repeat the chant, â€Å"Kill the pig. Cut her throat. Spill her blood.† Piggy obviously if fed up with Jack and his hunters, asking, â€Å"What are we? Humans? Or animals? Or savages? What’s grownups going to think?’†(LoF p.91). And then, Ralph’s authority is challenged by Jack. Jack first disregards the rule of letting the person with conch speak without interruption. Then he directly challenges Ralph, saying, â€Å"And you shut up! Who are you, anyway? Sitting there, telling people what to do. You can’t hunt, you can’t sing-’†(LoF p91). From this confrontation is goes downhill on the island. On pg. 114, a â€Å"game† gets a little out of hand, when Robert pretends to be the pig, and the others pretend to hunt him, but then they become more serious and actually hurt hi m. He is not killed, however. Eventually, Jack and some of the other boys split apart from Ralph and his â€Å"group.† Jack and his hunting band kill another pig savagely, reveling in its agony. The â€Å"peak of their decline† was when they killed Simon, calling him a beast, during the storm. Then Piggy is killed, and the conch is shattered, and that is when I consider them to be at the absolute lowest in society: nothing more than savages.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  2. In the novel, Sam and Eric are introduced early as two separate people, beings, that resemble one entity. â€Å"Even while he blew, Ralph noticed the last pai... ... stood on the sand, looking down at Ralph in wary astonishment.†(LoF p200). The attire of the boys and the officer also stand in stark contrast. The officer is dressed with a military neatness, with a clean, decorated uniform, most likely clean, shaved, etc. The boys, however are in need of hair cuts, most of them are covered with clay, and they’re probably wearing the tattered remains of shorts or pants. Despite how much more â€Å"civilized† the officer must look than the children, an irony remains. This officer represents adult life, responsible, capable, but really bearing the same prospect for evil as the â€Å"savages†. This officer, who interrupted a manhunt, is going to rescue the children and take them off of the island, but to where? To a cruiser that will soon be hunting its enemy in the sam way as the savages hunted Ralph. To me, the irony is that although the officer and his cruiser seem to be so much more civilized than these little savage s, he isn’t. It’s just like what â€Å"the Beast† told Simon. No matter where you go, you can’t get away from him. Because this â€Å"Beast†, this capability for evil, exists in everyone.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚